Interior Design Terminology
ABSTRACT - Design illustrating general moods and forms rather than detailed realistic representations.
ACCESSORIES - Decorative objects such as vases, plants, books, and lamps added to an interior space to enhance the design
ANALOGOUS COLOR SCHEME - Using three colors (hues) adjacent on the color wheel. These colors create warm and cool combinations.
ANTIQUE - Furniture, art, or decorative objects more than 100 years old
ARMOIRE - A large wardrobe or movable closet used for storing clothes and linens or as an entertainment center or workspace.
BACKSPLASH - An upright surface or border protecting the wall behind a counter, sink, or stove typically measuring 4" to approximately 18" for a full backsplash
BALANCE - A harmonious and satisfying arrangement of design elements
BALUSTER - Rounded or vase-shaped upright supports, usually made of wood or stone and used in furniture, architecture, and hand rail supports.
BALUSTRADE - A railing made of balusters, bottom rail and top handrail. Balustrades are also used in smaller scale to embellish furniture
BALLOON SHADE - A fabric shade creating a gathered bottom edge when raised.
BAY WINDOW - An architectural structure typically composed of three windows joined together at an angle to each other, projecting out from an exterior wall
BLOCK-OUT LINING - Lining used in window treatments to prevent light from entering a room.
BOLSTER - A long, cylindrical shaped pillow.
BORDER - A decorative linear pattern used along outer edge.
BUFFET - A piece of furniture designed as a counter for serving.
BULLION FRINGE - Long twisted multiply fringe.
BUREAU - A dresser with drawers.
CAD/CADD - Computer aided drafting and design.
CAFE CURTAIN - window treatment typical gathered, stationary, hung from rods and rings installed half-way in a window
CAMELBACK SOFA - sofa style characterized by a large symmetrical rise or "hump" located on the back
CARPET NAP - The height the yarn stands above the backing of the carpet.
CARPET CUSHION - Padding used underneath carpet or area rugs for comfort and insulation.
CARPET SEAM - A line where two pieces of carpet are joined by sewing, hot melt tape, or latex tape
CHENILLE - A soft cotton yarn woven into a cloth resembling a wide-wale corduroy.
COLOR SCHEME - A combination of colors that harmonize with each other. Color schemes are analogous, complimentary, monochromatic, or triadic.
COMPLIMENTARY COLOR SCHEME - Using two colors (hues) that are opposites on the color wheel. Varying the tints, tones, and shades of these colors adds a dramatic effect.
DADO - The lower portion of the wall of a room, decorated differently from the upper section, as with panels.
DROPPED CEILING - A ceiling made of acoustic tiles suspended on a frame below the actual ceiling.
DRYWALL - Gypsum plaster board laminated with paper on both sides.
DUCK - A heavy, plain weave cotton fabric often used for slip covering because it is sturdy and easy to clean.
EGGSHELL - A paint base with a low-sheen satin finish; an off-white color.
FAUX - French for fake, it refers to a decorative painting technique using rags, sponges, and special rollers
FLAT - A paint base with a dull finish. This finish shows dirt easily and is difficult to clean.
FLOOR PLAN - A measured drawing of the dimensions, features, windows, and door openings of a room.
FOCAL POINT - The point of emphasis in a well-designed room.
HARDWOOD - Flooring consisting of planks made of oak, maple, walnut, and less commonly, teak, mahogany, and other exotic species.
HEARTH - The interior and the area immediately in front of a fireplace.
HEIRLOOM - Any object with both monetary and sentimental value.
JUTE - A plant fiber from East India used to make ropes, sacks, and floor coverings.
LAMINATE - Any material made by bonding two or more layers of another material, to create a stronger, less permeable surface covering.
LAYOUT - Also called a floor plan, this is used to decide the placement of furniture, appliances, and accessories within a room.
LMD - A simple design style based on light, medium, and dark tones. Light tones are used as the background. Medium colors are used for large furniture pieces and windows coverings. Dark tones are used for accessories.
MATTE - A paint finish which absorbs light. See Flat.
MONOCHROMATIC COLOR SCHEME - Using one color (hue) in various tints, tones and shades. Use multiple textures and patterns to add character and maintain unity.
OTTOMAN - An upholstered low stool or footrest.
PALETTE - The family of colors selected for a room.
RENOVATE -More comprehensive than "redecorate", it implies restoration to an earlier condition by repairing or remodeling.
SCALE - The relationship of an object to another object - such as the relationship of a piece of furniture to a room. The ratio between the size of something and a representation of it, such as the size of a floor plan drawing to the size of the actual room and furnishings.
SEMI-GLOSS - A paint finish that is somewhat reflective of the light. Often used in medium-traffic areas because it is easier to clean than flat and matte finishes.
SISAL - A natural fiber from Mexico and the West Indies, commonly used as a floor covering.
SOFTWOOD - Wood flooring made from easy-to-saw conifer or evergreens, such as pine, spruce, or fir.
TRACK LIGHTING - A light fixture with several same-size lamps installed along a metal track. Track lighting is mounted on a wall or ceiling and can be pointed toward different features for dramatic effect.
TRAFFIC FLOW OR PATTERN - The natural path along which people travel within a room to doors, closets and around furnishings.
TRIADIC COLOR SCHEME - Using three colors (hues) equal distance apart on the color wheel.
WAINSCOT - Paneling; often used to refer to the lower part of an interior wall when finished differently from the remainder of the wall; also called dado.
ACCESS PANEL: A small metal or wood door flush with a wall or ceiling surface which provides a closure over a valve or other operable device which is recessed into the wall or located above a ceiling. The access door may be keyed and lockable.
ACCESS FLOOR: Removable metal or concrete floor panels about 18" to 24" square which are supported on short steel pedestals so that wiring and ductwork may be installed, changed and maintained below the floor. The raised floor may be carpeted or tiled to create a finished floor surface.
ACOUSTICAL TILE, ACOUSTICAL PANEL: A ceiling or wall tile finishing material with an inherent property to absorb sound; usually made of mineral, fiber or insulated metal materials. Not "Acoustic Tile" or "Acoustical Board."
ACRYLIC (PAINT), ACRYLIC LATEX - A paint composed of acrylic resins, thinned with water.
ADDENDUM- Written or graphic instruments issued prior to the execution of the Contract which modify or interpret the bidding documents, including Drawings and Specifications, by additions, deletions, clarifications or corrections. Addenda will become part of the Contract Documents when the Construction Contract is executed. (Plural-"Addenda".)
ADHESIVE: A sticky substance to bond one material to another. Use the term "Adhere" instead of "Glue." Do not use "Glue," "Cement," or Mastic."
ADMIXTURE - A chemical which is added to concrete to accelerate or retard the setting process or to create air bubbles in the concrete, called "accelerators," or :air entraining agents."
ADVERTISEMENT FOR BIDS- Published public notice soliciting bids for a construction project. Most frequently used to conform to legal requirements pertaining to projects to be constructed under public authority, and usually published on newspapers of general circulation in those districts from which the public funds are derived.
AGGREGATE- Any of various hard, inert materials, like sand, gravel, crushed stone, or pebbles added to cement to make concrete, mortar, or plaster.
AGREEMENT- (1) A legally enforceable promise or promises between two or among several persons. (2) On a construction project, the document stating the essential terms of the Construction Contract which incorporates by reference the other Contract Documents. (3) The document setting forth the terms of the Contract between the Architect and a consultant.
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM- The process of treating air for simultaneous control of temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution.
ALKYD (PAINT)- A paint composed of a chemically synthesized, alkyd derived base, thinned with mineral spirits. The current version of "oil" based paints.
ALTERATION: A planned or executed change to an existing building, short of complete demolition of the building. See also DEMOLITION and SELECTIVE DEMOLITION.
ALTERNATE: Mechanism used in Bid Documents to seek separate bids for a different design than the "Base Bid" design. May be "Additive" or "Deductive" alternates.
APPROVE: The term "approved," where used in conjunction with the Architect's action on the Contractor's submittal, applications, and requests, is limited to the Architect's duties and responsibilities as stated in General and Supplementary Conditions.
APRON- (1) A finish strip applied below the stool of a window to cover the rough plaster or dry wall edge. (2) A paved or hard packed area abutting a garage door or other opening.
AREAWAY- An uncovered space next to the fountain walls of a building, for entrance of light and air to the basement.
ARRIS: Sharp edge of a finished member.
AS-BUILT DRAWING: A drawing or print marked by the Contractor to show actual conditions of a project as constructed after construction.
ASHLAR- A rectangular pattern of stone used in a wall.
ASPHALTIC CONCRETE: This is the term used for paving for roads and driveways. Not "Asphalt" or "Bituminous" Concrete.
ASTRAGAL- A small molding attached to one or both meeting stiles of
a double door, used to provide a tight, draft-free fit.
AWARD- The acceptance of a bid or negotiated proposal by an owner.
BACKFILL- The material (earth, gravel, or sand) used for refilling around a foundation wall.
BACKUP- The inner portion of a masonry wall, usually finished with face brick, stone ashlar, stucco, or other decorative or protective veneer on the outside.
BALUSTER- Any of a number of closely spaced vertical supports for a railing or balustrade.
BATT INSULATION - A preformed section of flexible fiberglass or mineral wool insulation with or without a vapor barrier covering on one side (either kraft paper or aluminum foil) sized to fit snugly in a framed cavity between studs or joists.
BATTEN- A narrow strip of wood or metal used to cover vertical joints between boards or panels.
BAY- An opening in a wall; a horizontal area division of a building, usually defined as the space between two columns or piers.
BEAM- A horizontal load-supporting member of a building which directly supports a floor; may be of wood steel, or concrete; transmits load horizontally to vertical columns or bearing walls. Normally beams are larger and are spaced further apart than "joist."
BEARING WALL- A wall which supports any vertical load in a building (such as floors, roofs, joist, beams or girder) as well as its own weight.
BEARING- The area of contact between a structural member (beam, girder, footing) and its underlying support (column, bearing wall, load bearing ground).
BELT- A horizontal course of decorative stone or brick exposed to the exterior face and encircling a masonry building.
BEVELED WOOD SIDING- Horizontal wood boards of varying widths, (usually 4", 6", 8", or 10") with lower edge thicker than upper edge.
BID- A complete and signed proposal to do the construction work or designated portion thereof for the dollar amount stated in the bid.
BIDDER- One who submits a bid for a prime contract with the Owner,
as distinct from a sub-bidder who submits a bid to another bidder. Technically, a bidder is not a contractor on a specific project until a contract exists between him and the Owner.
BIDDING DOCUMENTS- The advertisement or invitation to bid, instructions to Bidders, the bid form the drawings, the specifications, and any Addenda issued prior to receipt of bids.
BLANKET INSULATION - Roll type fiberglass insulation for installation over ceilings or on wall surfaces either laid flat or secured with impaling pins.
BOARD FOOT- A unit of measure represented by a board one foot long, one foot wide and nominally one inch thick, or 144 cubic inches.
BOARD MEASURE- A system of cubic measurement for lumber; the basic unit is a board foot.
BOND- The arrangement of bricks in certain overlapping patterns to give the finished structural unit additional strength and to allow the individual elements to act together as a cohesive, integrated unit. Commonly used bonds are Running, common, English, and Flemish bonds.
BORROWED LIGHT (OR "LITE") - An interior window between rooms which allows light from one room to enter another - It is an older term, but not entirely out of use - use instead "glazed opening."
BRACE- A structural member which reinforces a column, beam, or truss.
BRACKET- A horizontally projecting support for an overhanging weight such as cornice.
BRIDGING- A method of bracing wood or steel floor joists by providing lateral members between the joists. Cross-bridging forms an "x" shape between joists. The purpose of bridging is to distribute loading to several joists.
BUDGET- The sum established by the Owner as available for the entire Project, including the construction budget, land costs, equipment costs, financing costs, compensation for professional services, contingency allowance, and other similar established or estimated costs.
BUILDING PERMIT- A permit issued by a village, town, city, county, state or federal governmental authority allowing construction of a project in accordance with approved Drawings and Specifications.
BUILDING TYPE- A classification of a building according to principal activities or uses for which it was constructed, such as housing, jail, shopping center. This is not the same as an "occupancy type" of building codes.
BUILT-UP ROOFING - roofing system used on relatively flat surfaces - hot asphalt or coal tar pitch mopped on with several plies (3 to 4) of roofing felts. May be smooth surfaced, painted with fibrated aluminum paint, or graveled on top.
BUTT JOINT- The cut ends of sheet or boards placed adjacent to one another with no overlap.
BUTTRESS- An external structure usually brick or stone, built against a wall to support or reinforce it.
BY OWNER: The term "by Owner" means that work shown or described in the contract documents and labeled with this designation is not included in the General Contractor's contract, but will be completed under a separate contract with another contractor by the Owner. Coordination and scheduling of the work thus described shall be the responsibility of the General Contractor.
BY OTHERS: The term "by others" means that work shown or described in the contract documents and labeled with this designation is not included in the specific sub-trade's contract, but will be required to be done within the General Contractor's contract.
CAISSON- A deep foundation type which is constructed by boring a
large diameter hole in the ground and filling it with concrete.
CAMBER-A slight upward arching given to a beam, girder, or truss to prevent sagging due to weight.
CANT STRIP- A slanted or angled board laid at roof-wall intersection or in back of a parapet, to transition from horizontal to vertical for a roof membrane.
CANTILEVER- A structural member projecting horizontally well beyond its vertical support.
CASE WALL- A partition to enclose mechanical and plumbing systems.
CASEMENT- A type of window having a sash with hinges on one side allowing the window to open. Most contemporary casement windows swing outward.
CASING- The exposed trim molding, around a door or window; may be either flat or molded.
CASING BEAD - A plaster stop - do not use for gypsum wallboard trim.
CAULK - An archaic term meaning to fill small cracks with a linseed oil and whiting compound called "caulk" which is not very flexible and will not provide a water tight joint -- use the term "seal" or "sealant" instead.
CEMENT- Portland Cement for use in concrete, grout, mortar, cement plaster and stucco.
CEMENT PLASTER- Material made from Portland cement sand and water for use on exterior walls and soffits, and on high use interior surfaces or in high humidity interior spaces. "Stucco" is cement plaster.
CERTIFICATION FOR PAYMENT- A signed statement from the Architect to the Owner confirming the amount of money due the Contractor for Work accomplished and/or materials and equipment suitably stored.
CHALKBOARD - Do not use the term "Blackboard" which is archaic since contemporary chalkboards are not normally black.
CHAMFER - To bevel or round off a right angle corner.
CHANGE ORDER - A written order to the Contractor signed by the Contractor, Owner, and the Architect, issued after the execution of the Contract, authorizing a Change in the Work or an adjustment in the Contract Sum or the Contract Time. The Contract Sum and the Contract Time may be changed only by Change Order.
CHIPBOARD - Type of wood panel manufactured from wood chips and glue - not a correct term - use the term "particle board" instead.
CLERESTORY WINDOW - A window or series of windows in a wall above the eye line, for lighting and/or ventilation of the building.
CMU - Concrete Masonry Unit - Do not use "Cement Block" or "Cinder Block."
CODES - Regulations, ordinances or statutory requirements of a village, town, city, county, state, or federal government relating to building construction, adopted and administered for the protection of the public health, safety, and welfare.
COLUMN - A vertical load-carrying structural member supporting horizontal members (beams, girders, etc.).
COMPLETE - The term "complete" means all surfaces or areas of a construction item.
CONCRETE - A mixture of Portland cement, large and small aggregate, water and admixture.
CONDUCTOR - See "down spout".
CONDUIT - A protective metal tube for electric wiring.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS - The term "Construction Documents" means the Scope of Work list and reference drawings contained within the Volume by that name.
CONSTRUCTION JOINT - A joint in concrete flatwork or walls which is necessary for stopping the pour for the day - sometimes referred to as a "cold joint," but do not use that.
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT - The combined operations for the authorization, purchasing, supervision, accomplishment, and acceptance of a construction project.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS - Working Drawings and Specifications.
CONSULTANT - An individual or organization engaged by the Owner or Architect to render professional consulting services, supplementing the Architect's services. Types of consultants could be Engineers, acoustical, energy, or cost consultants.
CONTRACT DOCUMENTS - The term "Contract Documents" means all of the documents which make up the Contract between Owner and Contractor, including the Contract itself, the General and Special Conditions, the Technical Specifications, the Construction Documents (Scope of Work and Drawings), all Addenda issued prior to signing of the Contract and Change Orders issued by the Owner and agreed to by the Contractor after the signing of the Contract.
CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION - The duties and responsibilities of the Architect during the Construction Phase, which includes observation of construction, checking shop drawings, and approving pay requests.
CONTRACT DOCUMENTS - The Owner-Contractor Agreement, the Conditions of the Contract (General, Supplementary and other Conditions), the Drawings, the Specifications, and all addenda issued prior to execution of the contract.
CONTRACTOR - In construction terminology, the person or organization responsible for performing the Construction Work and identified as such in the Owner-Contractor Agreement.
CONTROL JOINT - A groove which is formed, sawed, or tooled in a concrete or masonry structure to regulate the location and the amount of cracking and separation resulting from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure, thereby avoiding the development of high stresses.
COPING - Top of a parapet, usually stone or metal, to prevent water from getting into the parapet.
COR-TEN - Proprietary name for a brand of weathering steel made by the Inland Steel Company - use the generic term "weathering steel" instead.
CORBEL- Masonry which is stepped out from each course to project from a wall.
CORNICE - A horizontal molding along the top of the wall or ceiling.
COURSE - A continuous horizontal layer of masonry.
CRAWL SPACE - An unfinished, accessible space below the first floor, generally less than full story height, but at least 1'-6" high clear under the joists or beams.
CRICKET - A small saddle on a roof used to divert water around a chimney or other small projection (see saddle).
CRIPPLE- A short supplemental wall framing member used between the door or window header (or window sill) and sill plate.
CURB - (1) The stone or concrete edging of a side walk or paved street;
(2) the raised edge of a floor or well opening.
CURTAIN WALL - An exterior wall which encloses but does not support the structural frame of the building.
DAMPPROOFING - An impermeable coat or coats of asphalt brushed or sprayed on the foundation basement wall to prevent the passage of moisture.
DATUM - A reference elevation to which other elevations are measured.
DEAD LOAD - The part of the total building load contributed by the structural building elements and materials.
DEFLECTION - The displacement in a structural member that occurs when a load is applied to the structure.
DELETE - To take something out of the building or contract - do not confuse with "omit" which means not to install something in the first place.
DEMISING WALL- An interior wall or partition used to sub-divide tenant spaces from one another.
DEMOLITION - Removal of an entire building -- see also "alteration" and "selective demolition."
DETAIL - A drawing, at a larger scale, of a part of another drawing, indicating in detail the design, location, composition and correlation of the elements and materials shown. (Usually referring to a plan detail.)
DIRECTED - Terms such as "directed," "requested," "authorized," "selected," "approved," "required," and "permitted" mean "directed by the Architect," "requested by the Architect," and similar phrases.
DIVISION (OF THE SPECIFICATIONS)- One of the sixteen organizational subdivisions used in the specifications and in construction information filing. (List them).
DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW - A type of window containing two movable sash sections which slide open vertically.
DOWNSPOUT - A pipe to carry rainwater from the gutter or roof to the ground or the sewer -- can be sheet metal, plastic, or other type of piping material.
DRAWING - do not use "print," "blueprint," or "sheet"
DRIP - A projecting part of a sill or cornice that sheds rain water and protects structural parts below.
DRYWALL - Gypsum board for interior wall and ceiling finish material.
DUCT - A rectangular or round sheet metal or fiberglass pipe used to convey warm or cooled air.
DUMBWAITER - an elevator too small for a person - used for vertically transporting food, mail, dishes, trays, etc.
EAVES - The lower or outer edge of a roof which overhangs the side wall of a building.
ELASTOMERIC - A material which is inherently rubbery for sealants, flashings, and waterproof membranes.
ELEVATION -(1) A drawing of the front, side, or rear of the building drawn to scale. (2) The height above surface of the earth or the vertical distance from a given reference elevation.
ENGLISH BASEMENT - A basement with half its height above grade level.
EVACUATION - The removal of earth from its natural position, or the depression resulting from the removal of earth.
EXPANSION JOINT - A joint in concrete, masonry, or metal designed for movement - expansion and contraction -- not a "control joint," or "construction joint."
EXPANSION SHIELD - a drilled-in lead shaft, into which a bolt is screwed, expanding the shaft tight against the hole -- used for anchoring materials onto concrete or masonry surfaces.
FACADE - The front of a building.
FACE BRICK - A good grade of brick used to finished the exterior of building walls.
FASCIA -(1) Any relatively broad flat vertical surface like that on the outside of a cornice.
(2) A finishing board used to conceal rafter ends.
FEASIBILITY STUDY - A detailed investigation and analysis conducted to determine the financial, economic, technical or other advisability of a proposed project.
FEE - A term used to denote payment for a professional service, (not including compensation for reimbursable expenses, such as travel, long distance telephone calls, photo copy, printing or mailing).
FELT PAPER- Archaic term - an asphalt-impregnated used as a covering for wall sheathing or for plys of built-up roofing, usually weighing 15 lbs. per 100 square feet -- use the term "building paper" for use over wall sheathing, and "ply" for roofing felts.
FENESTRATION- The design and disposition or arrangement of windows or other openings in a building wall.
FIBERBOARD - A building board of wood or other plant fibers compressed and bonded into a sheet, usually 4'-0" x 8'-0" x 1/2" thick.
FIBERGLASS - Finespun filaments of glass made into a yarn, used in blankets as insulation; or it may by added to gypsum or concrete products to increase tensile strength -- do not use the term "glass fiber."
FILL - Soil, gravel, or sand used to equalize or raise the surface of the earth.
FINISHED FLOOR - The top or wearing surface of a floor system, of hardwood, vinyl, terrazzo, or ceramic tile.
FIRE RESISTANCE - The ability of a wall or floor assembly to maintain structural stability and act as an effective barrier to the transmission of heat for a stipulated period of time. Measured in hours, such as 1hr, 2hr, 3hr, or 4hr.
FIRE STOPPING- Solid wood members placed between studs to retard the spread of flame within the framing cavity.
FIREPROOFING - The use of incombustible materials to protect steel structured membrane of a building so it can withstand a fire without losing structural integrity, for a stipulated period of time. Measured in hours, such as 1 hr, 2hr, 3hr, or 4hr.
FLAKE BOARD - use the term "particle board" instead.
FLAME SPREAD CLASSIFICATION - A standard measurement of the relative surface burning characteristics of a building material when tested by ASTM E 84. Classes are A, B, or C.
FLASHING- The strips of sheet metal, copper, lead, or tin used to cover and protect structural angles and joints, to prevent water seepage or leaks.
FLOAT FINISH- The surface of concrete finished by a continuous spreading of the material with a flat board.
FLUE- The duct or open space within a chimney through which combustion gasses and smoke are allowed to escape.
FOOTING- The projecting course at the base of a foundation wall which distributes the building load over a wider area of the soil.
FOYER- The entrance hall of a house or other building type.
FURNISH: The term "furnish" is used to mean "supply and deliver to the Project site, ready for unloading, unpacking, assembly, installation, and similar operations."
FURRING- The strips of wood or metal applied to wall or other surface to make it plumb or true to line, which will provide a fastening surface for a finish covering -- be more precise by using the terms "wood furring" or "metal furring."
FURRING CHANNEL- cold rolled steel channel for suspension of plaster or drywall ceilings - usually 3/4" or 1 2" deep.
GABLE- The triangular-shaped wall at the end of a building between the slopes of a roof.
GAGE- Same as "gauge" -- thickness of metal.
GAMBREL ROOF- A ridged roof, with sides having two pitches or slopes.
GENERAL CONTRACT-(1) Under the single contract system, the Contract Between the Owner and the Contractor for construction of the entire Work. (2) Under the separate contract system, that Contract between the Owner and a Contractor for construction of architectural and structural Work.
GENERAL CONDITIONS (OF THE CONTRACT FOR CONSTRUCTION)- That written part of the Contract Documents which sets forth many of the rights, responsibilities and relationships of the parties involved.
GIRDER- A Horizontal load supporting member of a building which supports a beam or beams.
GIRT- A secondary horizontal framing member extending between columns or studs to stiffen the framing system; also to provide support for the siding or sheathing.
GLAZED OPENING- glass window in an interior wall or partition -- do not use the term "window," "vision panel," "light," "lite," or "borrowed light."
GRADE BEAM - A horizontal load-bearing foundation member but end-supported on piles, piers, or caissons like a standard beam; not ground-supported like a foundation wall.
GRADE- Level of the earth's surface.
GRILLAGE- A system of beams, laid crosswise to form a foundation to evenly distribute the load.
GROSS AREA- The total enclosed floor area of all floors of a building measured from the outside surface of the exterior walls.
GROUNDS- The strips of wood or metal placed around a wall opening to establish the finished plane for the palter or concrete.
GROUT- A thin, fluid mortar mixture of Portland cement, fine aggregate and water used to fill small joints and cavities in masonry work -- do not use mortar in place of grout.
GUARD RAIL- A protective railing around an open raised platform.
GYP BOARD- See gypsum wallboard.
GYPSUM WALLBOARD- A prefabricated sheet used in drywall construction made of gypsum covered with paper which can be painted, or wall papered -- use the term "drywall" instead.
HANDRAIL- Single railing on wall at stair -- use "railing" for a protective barrier.
HANGER- Any suspended structural member to which other members are attached.
HARDBOARD- manufactured flat wood panel used for interior finish material -- do not use the terms "Masonite," or "pressed board."
HARDWOOD- wood obtained from deciduous trees, mainly used for finished wood trim, doors, panels, and furniture -- no specific species, could be oak, birch, ash, poplar, teak, mahogany, butternut, etc.
HEAD ROOM- The distance between the top of a finished floor and the lowest part of the floor above.
HEADER- In masonry, a brick laid across the thickness of a wall with one end toward the face of wall. In carpentry, a wood beam set at right angles to joists at a floor opening to provide a support for joist which are interrupted by the opening.
HEARTH- The floor of a fire place, and the projection of noncombustible flooring material in front of the fireplace.
HIP ROOF- A room whose four sides slope to a common point or to ridge; has no gabled ends.
HOISTWAY- shaft for elevators and dumbwaiters.
HOLLOW METAL- break-formed sheet metal used for doors, windows and frames.
IN KIND: The term "in kind" means of the same type, size, material, etc. as the existing item.
INDICATED: The term "indicated" refers to graphic representations, notes, or schedules on the Drawings, other paragraphs or schedules in the Specifications, and similar requirements in the Contract Documents. Where terms such as "shown," "noted," "scheduled," and "specified" are used, it is to help the reader locate the reference; no limitation on location is intended.
INSTALL- The term "install" is used to describe operations at project site including the actual "unloading, unpacking, assembly, erection, placing, anchoring, applying, working to dimension, finishing, curing, protecting, cleaning, and similar operations."
INSTALLER: An "Installer" is the Contractor or an entity engaged by the Contractor, either as an employee, subcontractor, or sub-subcontractor, for performance of a particular construction activity, including installation, erection, application, and similar operations.
INSULATION- Any material used to slow down the transfer of heat.
JACK RAFTER- The diagonal sloping ridge rafter of a hip roof.
JALOUSIES- Adjustable glass louvers in doors or windows to regulate light and air or exclude rain.
JAMB- The side framing or finish of a doorway or window.
JOINT FILLER- material which fills the entire depth of a joint and in itself does not form a waterproof joint -- may be topped with sealant to provide water tightness.
JOIST- A horizontal closely spaced framing member supporting a floor or ceiling.
KERF- A narrow slot cut in to the face of a material such as wood or metal.
KEYSTONE- The central topmost stone or brick of an arch.
KING POST- The vertical member at the center of a triangular truss.
KNEE- A brace placed diagonally at the center of a triangular truss.
LALLY COLUMN- A steel pipe column which is encased in concrete and another steel jacket on the outside to provide fire proofing.
LATH- Strips of wood (in older existing construction) or expanded metal used as base for plaster walls.
LATTICE- Any openwork panel of crossed strips, rods, or bars of wood or metal, used as a screen.
LEADER- archaic term -- use "down spout" instead.
LIEN- See "mechanic's lien".
LIGHT (OR "LITE")- A window pane or section of a window sash for a single pane of glass.
LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE- concrete which uses lightweight aggregate such as expanded shale or clay instead of crushed stone -- normally weighs about 110 pcf.
LIGHT WELL- A n open area within a building or in a subsoil space around a basement window, which provides light and air.
LINTEL- A piece of wood, stone, or steel placed horizontally across the top of door and window openings to support the wall above the opening.
LITE- See "light".
LIVE LOAD- That part of the total load on structural members that is not a permanent part of the structure. it may be variable, as in the case of loads contributed by people, furniture, wind, snow or earthquake loads.
LOAD-BEARING PARTITION- A vertical structural interior wall supporting a floor or roof.
(1) An attic-like space below the roof of a house or barn;
(2) any of the upper stories of a warehouse or factory,
(3) A type of apartment unit which is usually built within an old factory and which provides the occupant with large, open, high-ceiling spaces. Usually only a bathroom is enclosed and plumbing is minimal. Interiors are finished by occupant.
LOUVER- A slatted ventilator pitched to keep out fain or snow.
MANSARD ROOF- A roof with two slopes or pitches on each of the four sides, the lower slopes steeper than the upper.
MASONRY- Brick, concrete block, or stone.
MECHANIC'S LIEN- A legal charge on property in favor of persons supplying labor or materials for a building for the value of labor or materials supplied by them. Clear title to the claim for the labor, materials or professional services is settled through the "release of liens" which is accomplished through a form given to the owner by the contractor.
METAL- used to denote products fabricated from thin sheet steel.
METAL LATH- Expanded metal used for plaster lath -- do not use the terms "mesh" or "chicken wire."
METAL TRIM- edge trim for drywall -- do not use the term "casing bead" which is for plaster.
MEZZANINE- An intermediary floor having less than 1/3 of the area than the floor below.
MILL CONSTRUCTION- A type of "slow-burning" construction made of masonry walls, heavy timber framing, and planked or laminated wood floors.
MILLWORK- Doors, windows and door frames, mantels, panel work, stairways, and woodwork.
MITER- A joint formed by to pieces of material cut to meet at an angle.
MOLDING- A finishing piece to cover construction joists or edges, usually a long narrow strip of plain or curved wood; may be ornamented.
MONITOR- A raised rectangular and roofed structure on a roof having windows or louvers for ventilating or lighting the building.
MOP BASIN- Floor mounted sink for building maintenance purposes -- do not use terms "slop sink" or "service sink," which are wall-mounted sinks.
MORTAR- A bonding agent in masonry work, made of lime, sand, and cement mixed with water.
MUD- A common term for drywall joint compound products.
MULLION- Vertical framing which divides windows into major sections.
MUNTIN- The vertical or horizontal bars which divide lights (panes of glass) in a window.
NEWEL- The vertical post around which the steps of a winding staircase turn; the post at the top or bottom of a staircase, supporting the handrail or a balustrade.
NOSING- The rounded projecting edge of a stair tread or landing.
OAKUM - A loose fiber from hemp or rope, used as a backing for caulking joints in cast iron drain piping.
OFFSET - A ledge formed by a difference in the thickness of a wall.
OMIT- to leave something out by intention.
ON CENTER (O.C.)- The distance from the center of one structural member to the center of another, term used for spacing studs, joists, rafters.
OPTION- term used in construction documents to indicate that contractor may use one of several products at his or her choice.
PARAPET- An exterior low wall along the edge of a roof, balcony, ridge, or terrace.
PARGING- A coating of cement mortar (Portland cement, sand, and water mix), on a masonry wall, used to waterproof the outside surface of an exterior wall or masonry foundation.
PARQUET FLOOR- A hardwood floor laid in small rectangular or square patterns, not in long strips.
PARTY WALL- A wall built along the dividing line between adjoining buildings for their common use.
PATCH - The term "patch" means to remove any damaged or defective material within the area to be patched, and to replace it with new material, fitted in a workmanlike manner so as to provide a continuous plumb, level, and/or true to line surface, uninterrupted by flaws, defects, or blemishes.
PARTICLE BOARD - A wood and glue composite panel for sheathing, underlayment, subflooring, and substrate for veneers and plastic laminate for millwork.
PARTITION- A non-bearing wall which divides space and supports only its own weight.
PENTHOUSE- A building on the roof of a building to enclose mechanical or elevator equipment; also, an apartment on the roof of a high-rise apartment.
PERFORMANCE BOND - An insurance document purchased by the contractor from a bidding company (a "surety") which guarantees that the work will be performed in accordance with the Contract Documents.
PERMEABILITY- The property of material to permit a fluid (or gas) to pass through it; in construction, commonly refers to water vapor permeability of a sheet material or assembly and is defined as Water Vapor Permeance per unit thickness.
PERMIT- A document issued by a local, state, county, or federal governmental authority having jurisdiction to authorize specific work on a building.
PIER- A column; a foundation type shaped like a column underground, created by drilling a hole and filling it with concrete.
PILASTER- Half-column attached to or projecting from a wall.
PILE- A timber, steel, or concrete pole which is driven into the ground to serve as support for the foundation.
PITCH- The slope or incline of a roof, expressed in inches of rise per foot of length, or by the ratio of the rise to the total roof span.
PLANK- A piece of unfinished structural lumber 2 to 4 inches thick and at least 8 inches wide.
PLASTER- A mixture of gypsum, sand, and water, used as a finished surface for walls and ceilings, applied over gypsum, metal or wood lath.
PLASTIC INSULATION- Generic term for polystyrene ("Styrofoam") or urethane insulation.
PLASTIC LAMINATE- Thin sheet material of plastic composition used for finishing of interior millwork - do not use the terms "Formica," or "Melamine."
PLATE- A horizontal woo framing member which provides bearing and anchorage for wall, floor, ceiling, and roof framing.
PLENUM- An enclosed chamber for horizontal distribution of ventilation air, such as the space between a suspended finished ceiling and the floor above.
PLINTH- A square block at the base of a column, pedestal, or door casing.
PLY- A term to denote the number of thickness or layers as "3-ply"; for roofing felt, veneers, etc.
PLYWOOD- A fabricated wood product constructed of three or more layers of veneer joined with glue, laid with grain or adjoining plies at right angles.
PORTALS- A door, gate, or entrance, especially one of imposing appearance.
POST- A vertical wood structural column.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE- A method of giving tensile strength by stressing the reinforcing in the concrete before it sets, then releasing the tension after the concrete has hardened.
PRIMER- A first base coat of paint to seal the surface of the finished material and equalize suction differences.
PROJECT SITE: The term "Project Site" is the space available to the Contractor for performance of construction activities, either exclusively or in conjunction with others performing other work as part of the Project. The extent of the Project Site is shown on the Drawings and may or may not be identical with the description of the land upon which the Project is to be built.
PROJECT MANUAL- The 8 2"x 11" paper size bound book of written documents prepared by the Architect for a Project, including the bidding requirements, Conditions of the Contact and technical Specifications, used by the Contractor in bidding & building the project.
PROPRIETARY PRODUCT- A product produced by only one manufacturer to his own design, and not available from competing manufactures.
PROSCENIUM- In a theater, the front area of the stage still visible to the audience when the curtain is lower; the curtain and the opening that surrounds it.
PROVIDE: The term "provide" means "to furnish and install, complete and ready for the intended use."
PURLIN- A structural roof framing member laid horizontally across the roof beams to support a roof deck.
QUANTITY SURVEY- Detailed analysis and listing of all items of material and equipment and quantities of each necessary to construct a Project.
QUARRY TILE- Thick type of ceramic tile which is composed of fired clays and shales used for floors and bases.
QUEEN POST- Either of two vertical members of a triangular truss, each being equidistant from the apex.
QUOIN- The external corner of a building; any of the large square stones by which the corner is marked.
RABBET (ALSO REBATE)- A longitudinal channel, groove, or recess cut out of the edge or face of a member to receive another member, or one to receive a frame inserted in a door or window opening; the recess into which glass is installed in a window sash.
RACKING- Lateral stress exerted on an assembly. See test Procedure ASTM E 72.
RAFTER- A closely spaced sloping framing member supporting a roof.
RAIL- The cross of horizontal piece of a door, window sash, or panel. The top horizontal member of a balustrade.
RAKE- A board or molding placed along the sloping sides of a frame gable to cover the ends of the siding.
RANDOM- Without uniformity of dimension or design; e.g., masonry wall with stones placed irregularly, not in a straight course.
REBUILD: The term "rebuild" means to reconstruct a portion or portions of the building completely and properly using new or salvaged materials acceptable to the Owner and Architect.
RECORD DRAWINGS- Sometimes called "as-built" drawings, these are normally modified from the construction documents to conform to all changes made during construction.
REFINISH- To put finish back into its original condition -- do not use the terms "refurbish," "rehabilitate," "remodel," "renew," or "renovate."
REGULATION: The term "Regulations" includes laws, ordinances, statutes, and lawful orders issued by authorities having jurisdiction, as well as rules, conventions, and agreements within the construction industry that control performance of the Work.
REINFORCEMENT- A system of steel rods or mesh cast into concrete for accepting stresses.
RELOCATE- To move an item from one location and install in another location.
REMODEL- use the term "alter" instead.
REPAIR: The term "repair" means to fix and restore a portion or portions of the building to a sound, acceptable state of operation and serviceability or appearance. Repairs will be expected to last approximately as long as a replacement.
REPLACE: The term "replace" means to remove an existing element or elements from the building and install a new element of like kind or a salvaged element acceptable to the Owner and Architect, completely and properly anchored to the substrate and surrounding materials; also the term can mean to provide a substitute or replacement for an item.
RESET: The term "Reset" means to remove an existing element or elements from the building and reinstall it completely and properly anchored to the substrate and surrounding materials.
RESILIENT BASE- wall base material -- use this term generically instead of "vinyl base," or "rubber base."
RESILIENT FLOORING- Either tile or sheet goods for flooring material made from vinyl or rubber.
RESILIENT TILE- Floor tile -- use this term generically instead of "vinyl composition tile," "vinyl tile" or "rubber tile."
RETAINING WALL- A wall built to keep a bank of earth from sliding.
RIDGE- The top horizontal edge or peak of a roof.
RIGID INSULATION- High density fiberglass or cellular glass insulation.
RISER- The vertical part of a stair step; a vertical HVAC, plumbing, or electrical run or extension.
ROLL ROOFING- A roofing material made of compressed fibers saturated with asphalt, and coated with small gravel supplied in rolls.
ROOF HATCH- use this term instead of the archaic term "scuttle."
ROOFING FELT- See "felt paper".
RUNNER CHANNEL- Cold rolled steel channel 1 2" deep used for suspended ceiling framing.
SADDLE- A roof crossing between two adjoining roofs to the ends of the valley.
SANITARY SEWER- A sewer designed to carry sewage from bathroom, toilet room, and kitchen waste, not usually storm water.
SASH- The framework which holds the glass in a window or door.
SAWTOOTH ROOF- A roof composed of a series of single-pitch roofs whose shorter or vertical side has windows for light and air.
SCORE- To cut a surface of a material part way through with a sharp blade before braking; glass and ceramic tile are cut using this method.
SCRATCH COAT- The first coat of plaster applied to a wall, scratched or scored to provide a bond for the second coat.
SCREED- (1) A metal or wood strip placed at intervals on a wall or floor to gauge thickness of plaster or concrete.
(2) To level, as in pulling a straight edge across a concrete slab within the formwork.
SCRIBE- To score or mark along a cutting line.
SCUTTLE- A framed opening in a ceiling or roof, fitted with a lid or a cover.
SEAL COAT- A fine thin coating of asphalt paving with bituminous material to provide water resistance.
SEAL- (1) An embossing device or stamp used by a design professional on his Drawings and Specifications as evidence of his registration in the state where the Work is to be preformed.
(2) To provide sealant at a joint to make it water tight.
SEALANT- A semi-liquid or "elastomeric" water proofing material placed in a joint between materials to create a water tight joint or to fill small openings in wall or ceiling systems to prevent leakage of sound or to create a finished appearance and seal between dissimilar materials.
SEALER- A base coating of paint to seal and equalize suction differences and prevent absorption of subsequent coats.
SEAMLESS FLOORING- Sheet flooring material with joints field welded or sealed.
SECTION (DRAWING)- A drawing of a surface revealed by an imaginary plane cut through the project, or portion thereof, in such a manner as to show the composition of the surface as it would appear if the part intervening between the cut plane and the eye of the observer were removed.
SECTION (MATERIAL)- Sometimes loosely used to describe a rolled steel shape, such as "W section" -- use the term "W member" instead.
SELF-EDGE- Plastic laminate edging in which the horizontal surface overlaps the vertical edge surface and is cut off flush with the vertical surface -- this will expose a dark brown edge of the plastic laminate material and will be visible.
SEPTIC TANK- A covered tank in which waste matter is decomposed by natural bacterial action, draining into a drainage field.
SERVICE SINK- Wall-mounted sink for building maintenance purposes -- do not use the terms "slop sink" or "mop basin."
SEWER- An underground system of pipes which carry off waste matter or storm water to a sewage treatment plant or to an area of natural drainage.
SHAKE- A shingle formed by splitting a short long into a number of tapered sections.
SHEATHING- The first covering of boards, plywood, or wallboard placed over exterior wall studding or roof rafters -- not "sheeting."
SHEET FLOORING- Resilient linoleum, vinyl or rubber flooring installed wall to wall.
SHEET METAL- Usually thin steel sheets.
SHEET PILING- Planking or steel plates driven close together vertically, to form a temporary wall around an excavation.
SHIM- To build up low areas; to level or adjust height.
SHINGLE- A roofing type using tapered pieces of cedar or asphalt composition pieces nailed one overlapping the other.
SHOP DRAWINGS- Drawings, diagrams, illustrations, schedules, performance charts, brochures and other data prepared by the Contractor or any Subcontractor, manufacturer, supplier or distributor, which illustrate how specific portions of the Work will be fabricated and/or installed.
SHORING- Structural bracing used as temporary support for a building during construction.
SILL- A horizontal piece forming the bottom frame of a door or window.
SITE- Geographical location of the Project, usually defined by legal boundary lines.
SLEEPER- A strip of wood anchored to a concrete floor or nailed to subflooring and to which the finishes floor is nailed.
SLUMP- A concrete test method to evaluate water/cement ratio consistency.
SOFFIT- The undersurface of a building member, as of a cornice, arch or stairway.
SOFTWOOD- Type of lumber from conifer evergreen trees, such as pine, fir, larch, ceder, and redwood.
SOIL- Use this term instead of "earth" or "dirt."
SPAN- The horizontal clear distance between supports, as those of a bridge, or between two piers.
SPANDREL BEAM- A beam which lies in the same vertical plane as the exterior wall.
SPANDREL- A portion of an exterior wall between a window on one floor and a window on the floor above.
(1) A detailed description of requirements, composition and materials for a proposed building;
(2) Apart of the Contract Documents contained in the Project Manual consisting of written descriptions of a technical nature of materials, equipment construction systems, standards and workmanship. Under the Uniform System, the Specifications comprise sixteen Divisions.
SPRAYED FIREPROOFING- Mineral fiber composition applied to structural steel members by spraying with an applicator gun used to obtain a specific fire rating for the structure to comply with building code requirements.
SQUARE- (1) 100 Square feet of roofing surface;
(2) edges of an object which are at a right angle to each other.
STAGGER- To offset building members or fasteners in a horizontal or vertical plane in alternating sequence.
STAGING- A temporary scaffolding to support workers and materials during construction.
STANDARD- An approved criterion governing the quality of a construction material, operation, functional requirement, or method of assembly.
STICK BUILT- Constructed by means of building stud-by-stud and joist-by-joist in the field from raw materials.
STICK BUILDING- Light weight wood framed building -- type 5 construction by the BOCA/National Building Code.
STILE- The upright or vertical outside piece of a sash, door, or panel.
STOCK- Standard size raw building materials or standard equipment.
STONE- Granite, marble, limestone, slate used for fabricated interior or exterior finishes.
STORM SEWER- A sewer carrying only storm water (but never sanitary waste).
STORY (A CODE TERM)- A horizontal division of a building; that portion between one floor and the floor above.
STRETCHER- A brick laid lengthwise in a wall.
STRIKE- In stone setting or bricklaying, to finish a mortar joint with a stroke of the trowel, simultaneously removing extruding mortar and smoothing the surface of the mortar remaining in the joint; strike off.
STRINGER- The inclined structural framing member supporting the treads and risers of a stair.
STUCCO- Plaster made from Portland cement, sand, and water used as an exterior wall surface finish; usually applied over a galvanized metal lath or wood lath base.
STUD- A vertical wood or metal framing member to which sheathing and finished surfaces are nailed, as the supporting elements in walls and partitions.
SUB STRUCTURE- That part of a building structure below the ground.
SUBCONTRACTOR- A person or organization who has a direct Contract with a prime Contractor to perform a portion of the Work at the site.
SUBFLOOR- A floor laid on top of the floor joists, to which the finished floor is fastened.
SUBSOIL DRAIN- Also called a "footing drain". A perforated 4" diameter pipe which is installed on the outside of the footing surrounded by pea gravel, which allows storm water in the soil to drain into it and be carried off to the sewer system or to a sump pit inside the basement, and from there pumped out back to the gravel surface or into the sewer.
SUBSTANTIAL COMPLETION: The term "Substantial Completion" means the date on which the Architect issues a Certificate of Substantial Completion based on an inspection of the Work, by which it can be determined that the Work is sufficiently complete in accordance with the Contract Documents so that the Owner can occupy or utilize the Work for the use for which it is intended. A Certificate of Substantial Completion may be issued for each individual building as it is completed, if this is in the Owner's best interests.
SUPERSTRUCTURE- That part of a building structure above the foundation or ground level.
SUPPLIER- A person or organization who supplies materials or equipment for the Work, including that fabricated to a special design, but who does not perform labor at the site.
SURVEY- Boundary and/or topographic mapping of a site.
TACKBOARD- A bulletin board, made of cork or other resilient tackable surface.
TERRA COTTA- A hard, brown-red fired, clay product, typically used as exterior ornament. Can be glazed, or unglazed.
TERRAZZO- A durable floor finish made of small chips of colored stone or marble, embedded in cement and polished in place to a high glaze.
TESTING LABORATORIES - A "testing laboratory" is an independent entity engaged to perform specific inspections or tests, either at the Project Site or elsewhere, and to report on and, if required, to interpret results of those inspections or tests.
THERMAL BRIDGE- A thermally conducive area of an exterior enclosure which will allow heat to transfer from the interior of the building to the exterior at a greater rate then the other parts of the enclosure.
THERMAL BREAK- A separation between exterior and interior materials by an insulation material. Typically refers to a feature of a window wall system.
THRESHOLD- A strip of wood, stone, or metal placed beneath a door to cover a change in floor materials, to receive weather-stripping and, sometimes, an automatic door closer.
THRU- Short version of the word "Through" as used in drawings.
TOEBOARD- Raised protective edge (usually 4" high) at edges of landings, balconies, mezzanines, etc. where there is no wall or knee wall, but only a guard rail.
TOE SPACE- Recess at base of cabinets.
TONGUE AND GROOVE- A factory formed notch and mating projection on wood flooring or deck.
TOPSOIL- Soil used for planting trees, shrubs, ground cover, or grasses.
TRADES: Use of titles such as "carpentry" is not intended to imply that certain construction activities must be performed by accredited or unionized individuals of a corresponding generic name, such as "carpenter." It also does not imply that requirements specified apply exclusively to trades persons of the corresponding generic name.
TRUSS- Triangular structural framing members formed into a single plane for supporting loads over long spans, in wood or steel, or both.
TYPICAL- Means that the item referred to is repeated several times in similar circumstances and locations.
UNDERLAYMENT- A smooth, hard sheet material, such as hardboard, cement board, plywood, or particle board, placed over rougher substrates to achieve a surface suitable for application of finishes such as resilient flooring or ceramic tile.
UNDISTURBED EARTH- Soil which has not previously been excavated.
VAPOR RETARDER- A plastic sheet used to retard condensation in walls, floors, and ceilings, applied on the warm-in-winter side of the wall or ceiling structure or over the ground surface in a crawl space -- do not use the term "vapor barrier."
VERMICULITE- An inorganic mineral product that expands several times its initial volume when exposed to a high temperature (about 1000 degree F).
VITRIFIED TILE- A pipe made of clay, baked hard, then glazed so it is impervious to moisture; used particularly for underground drainage.
WAINSCOT- The lower part of an interior wall when its surface finish is different from that of the upper.
WAIVER OF LINEN- An instrument by which a person or organization who has or may have a right of mechanic's lien against the property of another relinquishes such right. Waivers of linen are provided to the owner by the general contractor and his sub-contractors & suppliers, at the time a pay request is submitted.
WALL- Vertical enclosure of a building or occupancy separation, usually load bearing.
WALL BEARING CONSTRUCTION- A structural system in which the floor and roof systems are carried directly by the masonry walls rather than by structural framing system.
WALLBOARD- A manufactured fibrous compressed material cut into sheets, used for sheathing (may be particle board, hardboard, or similar product).
WARM AIR SYSTEM- A heating system in which furnace-heated air moves to living space through a series of ducts, circulated by natural convection (gravity system) or by a fan blower in the ductwork (forced system) to registers in the floor, walls or ceilings.
WATERPROOFING- A procedure to make a material impervious to water or dampness, designed to resist a head of water (water pressure). Any of the material used to waterproof -- do not use the terms "roofing," "membrane," or "dampproofing."
WEATHERING STEEL- Steel designed to rust to a certain extent on its surface, then stop rusting -- Cor-Ten is one manufacturer's trade name for weathering steel.
WEATHERSTRIP- A thin strip of metal, felt, wood, etc., used to cover the joint between a door or window sash and the jamb, casing, or sill; to keep out air, dust, rain, etc.
WINDOW WELL- See "light well".
WOOD- Use the term for solid softwoods only, otherwise use the terms "hardwood," "plywood," or "particle board."
WROUGHT IRON- A soft, pure form of iron easily molded into bars and worked into ornamental shapes; widely used for decorative railings, gates and panels.
ZONING ORDINANCE- The control by a municipality of the use of land and buildings, the height and bulk of buildings, the density of population, the relation of a lot's building coverage to open space, the size and location of yards and setbacks, and the provision of any ancillary facilities such as parking. Zoning, established through the adoption of a municipal ordinance, is a principal instrument in implementing a master plan.